Monday, November 21, 2016

Björk - Mutual Core (Extended Version)

At the following post you will find references: Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Volcanoes: History and Stories of Survival, both Fiction and Non-Fiction Selected Bibliography, up to September 11, 2016; Hyperlinked to the North Shore of Vancouver, BC main libraries:

>> Sound On >> Best skoðað Full Screen >> Darkened Room myrkvuðu herbergi (Icelandic) / 


Góðan daginn! (Icelandic) (English, below)
Google þýðing / google translate
Björk Guðmundsdóttir known mononymously as Björk (/ˈbjɜːrk/), is an Icelandic singer, songwriter and actress. To learn more about The Republic of Iceland, the birthplace of the North American Tectonic Plate, click here.


Friday, November 11, 2016

Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Volcanoes: History and Stories of Survival, both Fiction and Non-Fiction

Selected Bibliography, up to September 11, 2016; Hyperlinked to the North Shore of Vancouver's main libraries:
  • Article from The New Yorker - “When the Cascadia fault line ruptures, it could be our worst natural disaster in recorded history” ... READ ITIf, on that occasion, only the southern part of the Cascadia subduction zone gives way ... the magnitude of the resulting quake will be somewhere between 8.0 and 8.6. Thats the BIG ONE. If the entire zone gives way at once, an event that seismologists call a full-margin rupture, the magnitude will be somewhere between 8.7 and 9.2. That’s the VERY BIG ONE. Kenneth Murphy, when he was interviewed for the article, and who had directed FEMA’s (Federal Emergency Management Agency: FEMA.gov www.fema.gov/) - (Disaster mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, education, and references.) Region X, the division responsible for Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska), says, “Our operating assumption is that everything west of Interstate 5 will be toast.” (The Editor of this note – SGW) adds that, in the CSZ - Cascadia Subduction Zone, the Juan de Fuca Plate continues all the way up to the Nootka Fault, midway up Vancouver Island's West Coast. There is another tectonic plate to the north, the Explorer Plate as well as the south, the Gorda Plate. The problem, you see, is that the land under our feet is NOT really “as firm as the ground we walk on”.
  • It is the North American Plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Bering Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean. It starts in the east, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and covers the area westward to the Chersky Range in eastern Siberia. The plate includes both continental and oceanic crust. And, it moving inexorable to the west at between a speed of 15-25 mm (0.59-0.98 inches relative to the African Plate; and Next to the Pacific Plate which it running up against in the west 75,900,000 km2 (29,300,000 sq mi)
  • Of special note: Cascadia's Fault The Deathly Earthquake That Will Devastate North America By Thompson, Jerry Book - 2011
  • The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate.
    Type Major
    Approx. Area 103,300,000 km2 (39,900,000 sq mi)[1]
    Movement1 north-west
    Speed1 56–102 mm (2.2–4.0 in)/year
North America, Greenland, Bering Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean
1Relative to the African Plate
Type Major
Approx. Area 75,900,000 km2 (29,300,000 sq mi)[1]
Movement1 west
Speed1 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in)/year
CHILDREN'S SECTIONS:
OTHERS (eBooks that also have a printed copy may also be listed, above):
  1. Are You Ready? How to Prepare for An Earthquake By Mooney, Maggie eBook - 2011
  2. Walkabout DVD - 1998
  3. The World Is Moving Around Me A Memoir of the Haiti Earthquake By Laferrière, Dany

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Straightening Out Misunderstandings - Mega Tsunami (scenes from the film - Haeundae 2009) 1080p


Clip from Haeundae 2009 (Korean for Megatsunami)
https://youtu.be/2QEEyiB3g8k (6:49 minutes)

Published on Oct 8, 2014
Haeundae 2009 (Korean for Megatsunami)
Many new findings about the CSZ – Cascadia Subduction Zone, a result of ongoing research, discussion, reporting and media reports are coming out on a daily basis. It can be very daunting, even depressing to keep up our knowledge about the ongoing scientific research and growth in knowledge about seismicity, and particularly in the CSZ – Cascadia Subduction Zone. Much information and research is coming from Canada, Iceland, Japan and the United States.
So, what is an M9 Megaquake? You will find the answers and much more from Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences - resources for undergraduate students and faculty by Carleton College, One North College Street, Northfield, Minnesota 55057
So, what is a Megatsunami? From Wikipedia A megatsunami is a term used for a very large wave created by a large, sudden displacement of material into a body of water.
Megatsunamis have quite different features from other, more usual types of tsunamis. Most tsunamis are caused by underwater tectonic activity (movement of the earth's plates) and therefore occur along plate boundaries and as a result of earthquake and rise or fall in the sea floor, causing water to be displaced. Ordinary tsunamis have shallow waves out at sea, and the water piles up to a wave height of up to about 10 metres (33 feet) as the sea floor becomes shallow near land. By contrast, megatsunamis occur when a very large amount of material suddenly falls into water or anywhere near water (for meteor impact), or are caused by volcanic activity. They can have extremely high initial wave heights of hundreds and possibly thousands of metres, far beyond any ordinary tsunami, as the water is "splashed" upwards and outwards by the impact or displacement. As a result, two heights are sometimes quoted for megatsunamis – the height of the wave itself (in water), and the height to which it surges when it reaches land, which depending upon the locale, can be several times larger.
Modern megatsunamis include the one associated with the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (volcanic eruption), the 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami (landslide into a bay), and the wave resulting from the Vajont Dam landslide (caused by human activity destabilizing sides of valley). Prehistoric examples include the Storegga Slide (landslide), and the Chicxulub, Chesapeake Bay and Eltanin meteor impacts. The 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami occurred on July 9 at 22:15:58, following an earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of XI (Extreme). The earthquake took place on the Fairweather Fault and triggered a rockslide of 30 million cubic metres (40 million cubic yards, and about 90 million tons) to fall from several hundred metres into the narrow inlet of Lituya Bay, Alaska. The impact was heard 50 miles (80 km) away,[6] and the sudden displacement of water resulted in a megatsunami that destroyed vegetation up to 525m (1,722 feet) above the height of the bay and a wave that traveled across the bay with a crest reported by witnesses to be on the order of 98 feet (30 m) in height.[citation needed] This is the most significant megatsunami and the largest known in modern times. The event forced a re-evaluation of large wave events, and recognition of impact, rockfall and landslide events as a previously unknown cause of very large waves.
USGS – United States Geological Survey - Contact
[http://earthquake.usgs.gov/contactus/]
Earthquake Facts & Earthquake Fantasy - Fact or Fiction? [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/megaqk_facts_fantasy.php]

From Wikipedia: The current standard to measurement earthquake's is the Moment magnitude scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as MW or M). It is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released.[1]
The scale was developed in the 1970s to succeed the 1930s-era Richter magnitude scale (ML). Even though the formulae are different, the new scale retains a similar continuum of magnitude values to that defined by the older one. As with the Richter magnitude scale, an increase of one step on this logarithmic scale corresponds to a 101.5 (about 32) times increase in the amount of energy released, and an increase of two steps corresponds to a 103 (1,000) times increase in energy. Thus, an earthquake of MW 7.0 releases about 32 times as much energy as one of 6.0 and 1,000 times that of 5.0.
The magnitude is based on the seismic moment of the earthquake, which is equal to the rigidity of the Earth multiplied by the average amount of slip on the fault and the size of the area that slipped.[2]
Since January 2002, the MMS has been the scale used by the United States Geological Survey to calculate and report magnitudes for all modern large earthquakes.[3]
Popular press reports of earthquake magnitude usually fail to distinguish between magnitude scales, and are often reported as "Richter magnitudes" when the reported magnitude is a moment magnitude (or a surface-wave or body-wave magnitude). Because the scales are intended to report the same results within their applicable conditions, the confusion is minor.
The United States Government through the US Geological Service maintains a world wide record of seismic events.
Latest Earthquakes - USGS Earthquake Hazards Program [1 Day, Magnitude 2.5+ Worldwide] [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/]

Earthquakes - USGS Earthquake Hazards Program [

Largest earthquakes, significant events, lists and maps by magnitude, by year ... Information by Region. US map. Information by state, and world seismicity maps.




Friday, October 28, 2016

Towards Pangaea Ultima, and Beyond - National Geographic Colliding Continents


https://youtu.be/KCSJNBMOjJs  (50:04 minute)


Video transcribed by: King Ashur
Uploaded on Oct 14, 2011

Documentary of earth's violent past and tectonic plates.
Pangaea or Pangea (pronunciation: /pænˈdʒiːə/) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 300 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.
There have been a series of supercontinents formed and broken apart over millions of years. The supercontinent cycle is the quasi-periodic aggregation and dispersal of Earth's continental crust. There are varying opinions as to whether the amount of continental crust is increasing, decreasing, or staying about the same, but it is agreed that the Earth's crust is constantly being reconfigured. One complete supercontinent cycle is said to take 300 to 500 million years. Continental collision makes fewer and larger continents while rifting makes more and smaller continents.
The hypothesized supercontinent cycle is complemented by the Wilson cycle named after plate tectonics pioneer J.Tuzo Wilson, which describes the periodic opening and closing of ocean basins.
Because the oldest seafloor material found today dates to only 170 million years old, whereas the oldest continental crust material found today dates to at least 4 billion years old, it makes sense to emphasize the much longer record of the planetary pulse that is recorded in the continents.
Pangaea Ultima (also called Pangaea Proxima, Neopangaea, and Pangaea II) is a possible future supercontinent configuration. Consistent with the supercontinent cycle, Pangaea Ultima could occur within the next 250 million years. This potential configuration, hypothesized by Christopher
Scotese
, earned its name from its similarity to the previous Pangaea supercontinent. The concept was based on examination of past cycles of formation and breakup of supercontinents, not on current understanding of the mechanisms of tectonic change, which are too imprecise to project that far into the future. "It's all pretty much fantasy to start with", Scotese has said. "But it's a fun exercise to think about what might happen. And you can only do it if you have a really clear idea of why things happen in the first
place."[1]

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

PBS Nova: Surviving The Tsunami HD (History\Nature Documentary)

Remember, the North American Tectonic Plate is riding up over the (subducting) leading Pacific Tectonic Plates:
https://youtu.be/jrKTsvrOPg4 (53:03 minute YouTube Video)
PBS Nova: Surviving The Tsunami HD (History\Nature Documentary)
This video, filmed by NHK is of The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (東北地方太平洋沖地震 Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin?) was a magnitude 9.0 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011,[2][3][8] with the epicentre approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 30 km (19 mi).[2][9] The earthquake is also often referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan earthquake (東日本大震災 Higashi nihon daishinsai?)[10][11][12][fn 1] and also known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake,[26] and the 3.11 (IE: March 11) earthquake. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded to have hit Japan, and the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900.[8][27][28] The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture,[29][30] and which, in the Sendai area, traveled up to 10 km (6 mi) inland.[31] The earthquake moved Honshu (the main island of Japan) 2.4 m (8 ft) east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in),[32][33][34] and generated infrasound waves detected in perturbations of the low-orbiting GOCE satellite.[35]
https://youtu.be/jrKTsvrOPg4 (53:03 minute YouTube Video)
Published on Feb 1, 2016
National Geographic, The History Channel, Nat Geo Wild, PBS Nova


Of course there have been Tsunamis with higher run-ups than that. List of historical tsunamis - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World's Tallest Tsunami (in current historical record, as of November 26, 2016): 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami
A tsunami with a record run-up height of 524 meters (1720 feet) occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska
On the night of July 9, 1958, an earthquake along the Fairweather Fault in the Alaska Panhandle loosened about 40 million cubic yards (30.6 million cubic meters) of rock high above the northeastern shore of Lituya Bay. This mass of rock plunged from an altitude of approximately 3000 feet (914 meters) down into the waters of Gilbert Inlet (see map below). The impact generated a local tsunami that crashed against the southwest shoreline of Gilbert Inlet. The wave hit with such power that it swept completely over the spur of land that separates Gilbert Inlet from the main body of Lituya Bay. The wave then continued down the entire length of Lituya Bay, over La Chaussee Spit and into the Gulf of Alaska. The force of the wave removed all trees and vegetation from elevations as high as 524 meters (1720 feet) above sea level. Millions of trees were uprooted and swept away by the wave. This is the highest wave that has ever been known.