Thursday, May 25, 2017

Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Volcanoes: History and Stories of Survival, both Fiction and Non-Fiction

This is all very serious … a great Icelandic artist, Björk Guðmundsdóttir, has done a very visual representation (shown earlier in the blog/website): 

Selected Bibliography, UPDATED TO:  May 25, 2017, and
Hyperlinked to the North Shore of Vancouver, BC's main libraries:

  • Article from The New Yorker - “When the Cascadia fault line ruptures, it could be our worst natural disaster in recorded history” ... READ ITIf, on that occasion, only the southern part of the Cascadia subduction zone gives way ... the magnitude of the resulting quake will be somewhere between 8.0 and 8.6. Thats the BIG ONE. If the entire zone gives way at once, an event that seismologists call a full-margin rupture, the magnitude will be somewhere between 8.7 and 9.2. That’s the VERY BIG ONE. Kenneth Murphy, when he was interviewed for the article, and who had directed FEMA’s (Federal Emergency Management Agency: - (Disaster mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, education, and references.) Region X, the division responsible for Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska), says, “Our operating assumption is that everything west of Interstate 5 will be toast.” (The Editor of this note – SGW) adds that, in the CSZ - Cascadia Subduction Zone, the Juan de Fuca Plate continues all the way up to the Nootka Fault, midway up Vancouver Island's West Coast. There is another tectonic plate to the north, the Explorer Plate as well as the south, the Gorda Plate. The problem, you see, is that the land under our feet is NOT really “as firm as the ground we walk on”.
  • It is the North American Plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Bering Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean. It starts in the east, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and covers the area westward to the Chersky Range in eastern Siberia. The plate includes both continental and oceanic crust. It is moving inexorably to the west at between a speed of variously reported as 56–102 mm (2.2–4.0 in)/year, sometimes between 15-25 mm (0.59-0.98 in)/year, relative to the African Plate.  Recent GPS readings on the tops of the Olympic Mountains in Northwest Washington through to the Coast Range North West of Campbell River show that these mountains continue to be forced up, and over the Pacific Plate which is subducting beneath. The Pacific Plate  is 75,900,000 km2 (29,300,000 sq mi).  The CSZ - Cascadia Subduction Zone, the boundary between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate, has been locked up for over 300 years.  If it breaks loose all at the same time, in a full margin rupture, at present the net deficit for the entire Pacific Northwest and Southwest B.C. is about down two meters (6.5 feet) and a jump 6.5 meters (21 feet) to the south-west.  In other words, the entire west coast will drop down two meters (6.5 feet) and lurch 6.5 meters (21 feet) to the south-west.  In each of many other Subduction Zone events in Alaska, Chile, Indonesia, Japan, Portugal these are all accompanied by megatsunamis.  The type of subduction zone great quake happens continuously over a period lasting for six (6) to fifteen (15) minutes.
  • Of special note: Cascadia's Fault The Deathly Earthquake That Will Devastate North America By Thompson, Jerry Book - 2011
  • The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate.
    Type Major
    Approx. Area 103,300,000 km2 (39,900,000 sq mi)[1]
    Movement1 north-west
    Speed1 56–102 mm (2.2–4.0 in)/year
North America, Greenland, Bering Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean
1Relative to the African Plate
Type Major
Approx. Area 75,900,000 km2 (29,300,000 sq mi)[1]
Movement1 west
Speed1 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in)/year
OTHERS (eBooks that also have a printed copy may also be listed, above):
  1. Are You Ready? How to Prepare for An Earthquake By Mooney, Maggie eBook - 2011
  2. Walkabout DVD - 1998
  3. The World Is Moving Around Me A Memoir of the Haiti Earthquake By Laferrière, Dany

Saturday, May 20, 2017

Icelandic Native, Bjӧrk - Mutual Core - OFFICIAL - Art + Music - MOCAtv

Published on Nov 13, 2012
In "Mutual Core," recorded by Björk for her seventh album Biophilia, the earth's geology is a metaphor for human relationships. Eruptions and earthquakes, the building of continents, the formation of mountain ranges and oceanic trenches: all are powerful signs of the earth's structure and mechanics. Represented musically by the violent interruption of block rocking beats, video director Andrew Thomas Huang here depicts the push and pull of tectonic plates with anthropomorphized rocks, lava and sand encircling Björk in dance, their psychedelic innards resembling the frayed strands of a Fritz Haeg rug.

Directed by Andrew Thomas Huang

Reykjavik Unit:

Producer: Árni Björn Helgason
Director of Photography: August Jakobsson
Production Designer: Gus Olafsson
Hair & Makeup Artist: Frida Maria Hardardottir

Los Angeles Unit:

Director of Photography: Laura Merians
Production Designer: Hugh Zeigler

VFX Executive Producer: David Lyons
Lead CG Supervisor: Michael Ranger
Lead Compositor: Lindsey Fry
FX Technical Director: Nico Sugleris

Director's Rep: LARK Creative

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    • Standard YouTube License

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

540 Million Years (One MA = One Million Years) in 6:34 minutes - Plate Tectonics, 540Ma - Modern World - Scotese Animation 022116b

Plate Tectonics, 540Ma - Modern World - Scotese Animation 022116b

An Intelligent Man 

Published on Feb 21, 2016
This animation shows the plate tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Earth back to 540 million years, (ago). It also shows the major ice ages at : 20,000 years, 300 years, and 445 million years (ago).
This animation should be cited as
Scotese, C.R., 2016. Plate Tectonics, Paleogeography, and Ice Ages, (Modern World - 540Ma), YouTube Animation

    From Wikipedia
    Ma (for megaannus), is a unit of time equal to one million, or 106, years, or 1 E6 yr. "Ma" is commonly used in scientific disciplines such as geology, paleontology, and celestial mechanics to signify very long time periods into the past or future. For example, the dinosaur species Tyrannosaurus rex was abundant approximately 66 Ma (66 million years) ago. The duration term "ago" may not always be indicated: if the quantity of a duration is specified while not explicitly mentioning a duration term, one can assume that "ago" is implied; the alternative unit "mya" does include "ago" explicitly. In astronomical applications, the year used is the Julian year of precisely 365.25 days. In geology and paleontology, the year is not so precise and varies depending on the author.

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Straightening Out Misunderstandings - Mega Tsunami (scenes from the film - Haeundae 2009) 1080p

Clip from Haeundae 2009 (Korean for Megatsunami) (6:49 minutes)

Published on Oct 8, 2014
Haeundae 2009 (Korean for Megatsunami)
Many new findings about the CSZ – Cascadia Subduction Zone, a result of ongoing research, discussion, reporting and media reports are coming out on a daily basis. It can be very daunting, even depressing to keep up our knowledge about the ongoing scientific research and growth in knowledge about seismicity, and particularly in the CSZ – Cascadia Subduction Zone. Much information and research is coming from Canada, Iceland, Japan and the United States.
So, what is an M9 Megaquake? You will find the answers and much more from Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences - resources for undergraduate students and faculty by Carleton College, One North College Street, Northfield, Minnesota 55057
So, what is a Megatsunami? From Wikipedia A megatsunami is a term used for a very large wave created by a large, sudden displacement of material into a body of water.
Megatsunamis have quite different features from other, more usual types of tsunamis. Most tsunamis are caused by underwater tectonic activity (movement of the earth's plates) and therefore occur along plate boundaries and as a result of earthquake and rise or fall in the sea floor, causing water to be displaced. Ordinary tsunamis have shallow waves out at sea, and the water piles up to a wave height of up to about 10 metres (33 feet) as the sea floor becomes shallow near land. By contrast, megatsunamis occur when a very large amount of material suddenly falls into water or anywhere near water (for meteor impact), or are caused by volcanic activity. They can have extremely high initial wave heights of hundreds and possibly thousands of metres, far beyond any ordinary tsunami, as the water is "splashed" upwards and outwards by the impact or displacement. As a result, two heights are sometimes quoted for megatsunamis – the height of the wave itself (in water), and the height to which it surges when it reaches land, which depending upon the locale, can be several times larger.
Modern megatsunamis include the one associated with the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (volcanic eruption), the 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami (landslide into a bay), and the wave resulting from the Vajont Dam landslide (caused by human activity destabilizing sides of valley). Prehistoric examples include the Storegga Slide (landslide), and the Chicxulub, Chesapeake Bay and Eltanin meteor impacts. The 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami occurred on July 9 at 22:15:58, following an earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of XI (Extreme). The earthquake took place on the Fairweather Fault and triggered a rockslide of 30 million cubic metres (40 million cubic yards, and about 90 million tons) to fall from several hundred metres into the narrow inlet of Lituya Bay, Alaska. The impact was heard 50 miles (80 km) away,[6] and the sudden displacement of water resulted in a megatsunami that destroyed vegetation up to 525m (1,722 feet) above the height of the bay and a wave that traveled across the bay with a crest reported by witnesses to be on the order of 98 feet (30 m) in height.[citation needed] This is the most significant megatsunami and the largest known in modern times. The event forced a re-evaluation of large wave events, and recognition of impact, rockfall and landslide events as a previously unknown cause of very large waves.
USGS – United States Geological Survey - Contact
Earthquake Facts & Earthquake Fantasy - Fact or Fiction? []

From Wikipedia: The current standard to measurement earthquake's is the Moment magnitude scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as MW or M). It is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released.[1]
The scale was developed in the 1970s to succeed the 1930s-era Richter magnitude scale (ML). Even though the formulae are different, the new scale retains a similar continuum of magnitude values to that defined by the older one. As with the Richter magnitude scale, an increase of one step on this logarithmic scale corresponds to a 101.5 (about 32) times increase in the amount of energy released, and an increase of two steps corresponds to a 103 (1,000) times increase in energy. Thus, an earthquake of MW 7.0 releases about 32 times as much energy as one of 6.0 and 1,000 times that of 5.0.
The magnitude is based on the seismic moment of the earthquake, which is equal to the rigidity of the Earth multiplied by the average amount of slip on the fault and the size of the area that slipped.[2]
Since January 2002, the MMS has been the scale used by the United States Geological Survey to calculate and report magnitudes for all modern large earthquakes.[3]
Popular press reports of earthquake magnitude usually fail to distinguish between magnitude scales, and are often reported as "Richter magnitudes" when the reported magnitude is a moment magnitude (or a surface-wave or body-wave magnitude). Because the scales are intended to report the same results within their applicable conditions, the confusion is minor.
The United States Government through the US Geological Service maintains a world wide record of seismic events.
Latest Earthquakes - USGS Earthquake Hazards Program [1 Day, Magnitude 2.5+ Worldwide] []

Earthquakes - USGS Earthquake Hazards Program [

Largest earthquakes, significant events, lists and maps by magnitude, by year ... Information by Region. US map. Information by state, and world seismicity maps.